By Carl Bunderson,
|A portrait of Shinya Yamanaka.|
Credit: Gladstone Institutes-Chris Goodfellow.
Photo courtesy of Nobelprize.org
“Yamanaka will be remembered in history as the man who put human embryonic stem cell research largely out of business, motivated by reflection on the fact that his own daughters were once human embryos,” Fr. Berg, professor of moral theology at St. Joseph's Seminary in Yonkers, N.Y. told CNA Oct. 8.
Gurdon's research was conducted in 1962 and showed that it is possible to reverse the specialization of cells. He removed a nucleus from a frog’s intestinal cell and placed it into a frog's egg cell that had its nucleus taken out.
That egg cell was then able to develop into a typical tadpole, and his work was the basis for later research into cloning.
Until Gurdon's findings, it was believed that cell development could only happen in one direction, and that a mature cell nucleus could never become immature and pluripotent. A cell is called pluripotent if it can develop into any type of cell in the body.
Building on Gordon's work, Yamanaka published a paper in 2006 demonstrating that intact, mature cells can become immature stem cells. He inserted genes into mouse cells which reprogrammed those cells so that they became stem cells.
These reprogrammed cells are pluripotent. Yamanaka's breakthrough opened the door to studying disease and developing diagnosis and treatments.
Since this technique can produce a stem cell from any cell, it provides an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are derived from destroyed human embryos.
“There is every potential for the morally licit use of the technique developed by Dr. Yamanaka--cell reprogramming. No part of the process need involve ethically tainted source cells,” said Fr. Berg.
The Commission of the Bishops' Conferences of the European Community announced that this “is an important milestone in recognising the key role that non-embryonic stem cells play in the development of new medical therapies, as alternatives to human embryonic stem cells.”
The announcement of the prize contrasts the success achieved in using non-embryonic stem cells with the disappointing results from embryonic stem cells. The commission's statement noted that “recently GeronCorp., the world’s leading embryo research company, announced it was closing down its stem cell programme.”
Fr. Berg said that “although tissues developed by this process (cell reprogramming) are not quite ready for robust human trials, much progress continues to be made.”
It is hoped that this technique could someday lead to treatments in which a person's own cells are reprogrammed into organs that could replace any failing or damaged system.
Gurdon is a professor at Cambridge University, and Yamanaka is at Kyoto University. They will share the $1.2 million prize.